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69,660,559 (July 2005 est.)
Turkish (official)
29 October 1923
Southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
total: 780,580 sq km land: 770,760 sq km water: 9,820 sq km
   Land boundaries   
total: 2,648 km border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

   Natural resources   
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
   Geography - note   
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
   Government type   
republican parliamentary democracy
   Currency - Currency code   
Turkish Lira - TL

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5.5 million (2003)

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